DIABETES (PRE-DIABETES, TYPE 1, TYPE 2, GESTATIONAL)
Pre-diabetes is defined as a fasting blood sugar level of 6.1 mmol/L to 6.9 mmol/L, without medication.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of Type 1 diabetes is not known, and it is not preventable with current knowledge.
Symptoms include excessive urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.
Type 2 diabetes results from the body’s inability to use of insulin, majority of people around the world have Type 2 diabetes, due to excess body weight and lack of physical activity. Symptoms are similar to Type 1 diabetes but are often less marked. As a result, the disease may remain un-diagnosed several years after onset, diagnosis is made once complications set in. Until recently, this type of diabetes was seen only in adults, but it is now occurring increasingly in children.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia with blood sugar values above normal but below those diagnostics of diabetes, occurring during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery. They and their children are also at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes in the future. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed through prenatal screening, rather than through reported symptoms.